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Hormone Research in Paediatrics, has become the leading journal in the field of paediatric endocrinology.

The journal shares the mission of "improving care of children with endocrine diseases by promoting knowledge and research" with the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), and, since 1989, has become the official journal of the Society.

Find out more on the Hormone Research in Paediatrics website:-

Background/Aims: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of rare conditions. Evidence-based treatment is challenged by a lack of clinical longitudinal outcome studies. We sought to investigate the quality of life of children with DSD other than congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Methods: The participants (aged 6–18 years) were 23 patients raised as males and 7 patients raised as females. Control data were obtained from representatives of the patients’ siblings matched for age and gender. The Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM Version 4.0 (PedsQL) Generic Core Scales were used as the study tool. Results: In comparison with the reference data, the patient group had significantly lower overall PedsQL (p < 0.01) and school functioning (p < 0.01) scores. Also, the total PedsQL score was significantly lower in patients with DSD who were of female social sex as compared to the controls who were females. Family income, surgical procedures, degree of virilization, and mode of puberty did not influence the PedsQL scores. Conclusion: This study revealed a poorer quality of life for patients with DSD as compared to the age-matched control group. This highlights the need for a skilled multidisciplinary team to manage this group of patients.

Background: Diazoxide is the first-line treatment for pediatric hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI). This study aimed to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of diazoxide in children with HI. Methods: We obtained 81 blood samples from 22 children with HI. Measured serum diazoxide concentrations were used for population pharmacokinetic analysis. Patient factors influencing pharmacokinetics were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects model analysis. Relationships between drug exposure and adverse drug reactions were also investigated. Results: Diazoxide disposition in the body was described by a 1-compartment model. Oral clearance (CL/F) and the volume of distribution were proportional to body weight (WT), as expressed by CL/F in males (liters/h) = 0.0358 + 0.00374 × WT (kg). CL/F in females was 39% greater than that in males. Steady-state concentrations of diazoxide were similar following twice- and 3 times-daily dosing when the total daily doses were comparable. A patient whose serum diazoxide concentration exceeded 100 μg/mL over a 4-month period developed hyperglycemia. No significant correlation was observed between severity of hirsutism and diazoxide concentration. Conclusion: We have proposed for the first time a population pharmacokinetic model for diazoxide in children with HI. The potential risk of diabetes mellitus and/or hyperglycemia increases when serum concentrations of diazoxide exceed 100 μg/mL.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease of unknown aetiology that results from the autoimmune destruction of the β-cells. Clinical onset with classic hyperglycaemic symptoms occurs much more frequently in children and young adults, when less than 30% of β-cells remain. Exogenous insulin administration is the only treatment for patients. However, due to glucose dysregulation, severe complications develop gradually. Recently, an increase in T1D incidence has been reported worldwide, especially in children. Shortly after diagnosis, T1D patients often experience partial remission called “honeymoon phase,” which lasts a few months, with minor requirements of exogenous insulin. In this stage, the remaining β-cells are still able to produce enough insulin to reduce the administration of exogenous insulin. A recovery of immunological tolerance to β-cell autoantigens could explain the regeneration attempt in this remission phase. This mini-review focuses on the remission phase in childhood T1D. Understanding this period and finding those peripheral biomarkers that are signs of immunoregulation or islet regeneration could contribute to the identification of patients with a better glycaemic prognosis and a lower risk of secondary complications. This remission phase could be a good checkpoint for the administration of future immunotherapies.

We read David Allen’s excellent mini review entitled “Growth Promotion Ethics and the Challenge to Resist Cosmetic Endocrinology” with great interest [1]. We agree with all points presented and recognize that it is impractical to cover all possible aspects, still we would like to add some reflections and considerations....

Background/Aim: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a heterogeneous entity. Neonatal screening programs based on thyrotropin (TSH) determination allow primary CH diagnosis but miss central CH (CCH). CCH causes morbidity, alerts to other pituitary deficiencies, and is more prevalent than previously thought. We aimed at developing a pilot neonatal screening program for CCH detection. Patients and Methods: A prospective 2-year pilot neonatal screening study based on simultaneous dried blood specimen TSH and thyroxine (T4) measurements was implemented in term newborns aged 2–7 days. Those with T4 ≤4.5 µg/dL (–2.3 SDS) and TSH <10 mIU/L were recalled (suspicious of CCH) and underwent clinical and biochemical assessment performed by expert pediatric endocrinologists. Results: A total of 67,719 newborns were screened. Primary CH was confirmed in 24 (1: 2,821). Forty-four newborns with potential CCH were recalled (recall rate 0.07%) at a mean age of 12.6 ± 4.8 days. In this group, permanent CCH was confirmed in 3 (1: 22,573), starting L-T4 treatment at a mean age of 12.3 ± 6.6 days; 14 boys showed T4-binding globulin deficiency (1: 4,837); 24 had transient hypothyroxinemia (21 non-thyroidal illness and 3 healthy); and 3 died before the confirmation stage. According to initial free T4 measurements, CCH patients had moderate hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Adding T4 to TSH measurements enabled the identification of CCH as a prevalent condition and contributed to improving the care of newborns with congenital hypopituitarism and recognizing other thyroidal disorders.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is recognized as an escalating major health risk in adults as well as in children and adolescents. Its prevalence ranges from 6 to 39% depending on the applied definition criteria. To date, there is no consensus on a MetS definition for children and adolescents. However, most authors agree on essential components such as glucose intolerance, central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; each representing a risk for cardiovascular disease. Recently, associations between MetS and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hyperuricemia, and sleep disturbances have emerged. Biomarkers like adipocytokines are a subject of current research as they are implicated in the pathogenesis of the MetS. Epigenetics and gestational programming, especially the role of microRNA, comprise a novel, rapidly developing and promising research focus on the topic of MetS. MicroRNAs are increasingly valued for potential roles in the diagnosis, stratification, and therapeutics of MetS. Early detection of risk factors, screening for metabolic disturbances, and the identification of new therapies are major aims to reduce morbidity and mortality related to MetS. Dietary modification and physical activity are currently the only adopted treatment approaches. Pharmacological therapies and bariatric surgery are still contradictory and, therefore, are only recommended in selected high-risk cases.